The detained Spaniards weren't all anarchists - quite a few owed loyalty to the socialist UGT, and some were Falangists. They were eventually moved to a camp near Odessa. Several who accepted Soviet citizenship were released. Most remained in the Gulag system until they eventually secured freedom in the mid-1950s. It seems that more than 150 Spaniards were at some stage detained at Karaganda - about fourteen died in detention in the Soviet Union.
A few years ago, Spanish television reported on the tragedy of the Spanish nationals who had been imprisoned in Kazakhstan - an English language version is available on YouTube:
Two years ago, a small group of Spaniards - one of them a survivor - visited Karaganda to remember the trauma and tragedy. It is one of the more hidden aspects of the Spanish Civil War. It deserves remembrance.
DANNY TOMMY JOE GIBBONS INTERNATIONAL BRIGADERS 1936-1938
PAT DOOLEY SPEAKER AT PARLIAMENT HILL EDITOR 1901-1958
THEIR FAMILY PROUDLY REMEMBERS APRIL 1980
That's the inscription on a bench on Hampstead Heath - just a five-minute stroll from Kite Hill, bordering a copse of pine trees, and looking out east to Highgate. My friend Martin Plaut came across this rather out-of-the-way bench while doing his morning sit-ups. It's in some disrepair. He's trying to contact the family to see if they would be on board for a bit of fund-raising to spruce up this rather touching memorial.
The International Brigaders were those left-wingers who went to fight against fascism in the Spanish Civil War. More than 2,000 headed out from Britain - 500 or so never returned. I had the privilege to meet and interview a few of them towards the end of their lives. The International Brigade Memorial Trust keeps their memory and spirit alive - though this modest memorial seems to have escaped the otherwise comprehensive list on their website.
Danny Gibbons, a Scotsman who moved to Camden, was a communist and for a while the political commissar of the British contingent of the Brigades - there's a brief biographical note about him here. He was wounded at Jarama in February 1937 and was sent home to recuperate. He insisted on going back to Spain, was arrested by Franco's troops, and was eventually released in a prisoner exchange involving German and Italian officers. His younger brother Tommy died in Spain, in the battle for Brunete in July 1937.
Joe (his real name was Patrick) volunteered with the American battalion in Spain - there's some details on this site. And there was a fourth brother, John Gibbons, who was apparently refused permission to join the International Brigades - according to some accounts, the CPGB leader Harry Pollitt, said with three brothers risking their lives, it would be wrong to have a fourth Gibson fighting in Spain. He was, all the same, a very loyal member of the Communist Party and spent many years in Moscow.
Kathleen Gibbons was Danny's second wife, and her maiden name was Dooley. That may be the link with Pat Dooley - about whom I have been able to find out little. (Can anyone help?) A biography of the bohemian inter-war poet Anna Wickham mentions Pat (his real name was Lawrence) Dooley as an activist who made rousing left-wing speech at the top of Parliament Hill in the 1930s and '40s. Strange to think of this as a pitch for outdoor speakers!
I have a feeling that this blog will be returning to the story of the Gibbons brothers ...
This is such an arresting painting, I can't resist the temptation to post it here. It's by Clive Branson, a Communist artist who fought in Spain and died in Burma during the Second World War. It is, of course, intensely political ... and with a strong sense of place ... and through its use of colour, and the affection with which those peopling the canvas are depicted, an optimistic image as the clouds of war darkened.
The painting's title is 'Demonstration in Battersea, 1939'. I've blogged before about Clive Branson and his daughter Rosa Branson and their shared enthusiasm for art, though in markedly different styles. The image appeared in the Guardian a short while back - here's the link - in a review of an exhibition devoted British artists and the Spanish Civil War. It's at Chichester and is on until February.
The Guardian's caption: Demonstration in Battersea, 1939 by Clive Branson, dedicated to Comrade E Marney: ‘a parade of hungry volunteers… sometimes shirtless, often ill, but always wearing their brigade badges or caps’. Photograph: Collection of Rosa Branson/© The Estate of Clive Branson
A gem of a find this morning in a second-hand bookshop near Tufnell Park station - though it's not really a shop, as Healthy Planet gives away the books it stocks (I don't quite understand the business model, but if it works for them it certainly works for me).
Frank Pitcairn was the pseudonym of the left-leaning journalist Claud Cockburn (according to the Wiki entry, the BBC's Stephanie Flanders is his granddaughter). The Spanish Civil War started in July 1936, and Cockburn's reportage was published (by the CP's publishing house, Lawrence and Wishart) in October. This is a first edition - and unusually, it still has the dust jacket.
Sam Lesser - one of the last survivors of the International Brigades which fought in the Spanish Civil War - died last night. He was 95.
He was among the first group of British volunteers to go to Spain in the autumn of 1936. Three months later he was shot and returned home wounded. He went back to Spain to work as a journalist, and in later years - under the name Sam Russell - reported for the communist Daily Worker. I interviewed him once - about Spain, about reporting from Moscow, and his meeting with Che Guevara who, Sam enjoyed recounting, told him that: "the communist parties of Latin America are shit!"
Sam was a hugely gregarious guy, with a hearty voice, a splendid moustache, and a twinkle in his eye. You can hear Sam here reminiscing only a few months ago about fighting in Spain. There are some wonderful photos of Sam and other IB veterans - taken by Eamonn McCabe.
Andrew Whitehead's blog
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